1. The "Academy Award", also called "Oscar"

1.1. The history of the "Academy Award"

The Oscar The organisation which first handed out the "Academy Award" was "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer" (MGM) and was first planned as a company-controlled union. The brainchild was Louis B. Mayer. At the beginning the bestowal of the "Oscar" was only a side-line. In the mid-´30s Frank Capra, who won three directing "Oscars" in five years, moved the "Oscar" out of the union business into a public relations role.
Under the leadership of Louis B. Mayer the idea for an academy of film was born. On January 11, in 1927, there was a meeting between Louis B. Mayer, thirty-six directors and actors at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. As a result of this meeting an March 19, 1927, the "Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences" (AMPAS) was founded. The first president was Douglas Fairbanks. Since August 1997 Robert Rehme is the Academy's president.
First the academy occupied a number of rented offices. 1946 it moved to a building in Melrose Avenue, Hollywood, 1975 it moved again. The new address was the Wiltshire Boulevard in Beverly Hills. Now all directors, the administrative offices and all the other staff worked in one building. 1988 the historic Waterworks building in La Cienega Park was converted into the center for Motion Picture Study.
The Academy has mostly been conservative. It does not like radicals who try to push the medium forward. Not one of them ever got a Direction "Oscar". It is also mentioned that the Academy is prejudiced against women filmmakers. Lina Wertmüller and Jane Campion were the only women directors ever been nominated. But comparing the Directors branch to others it is more highbrow.